Adjektiv

The Indefinite Declension

There are three adjectival endings for the indefinite declension, and these depend upon the gender and number of the qualified noun.

  1. For singular common nouns, the uninflected form of the adjective is used:
  2. en kall vinter - a cold winter
    en grön fågel - a green bird

  3. For singular neuter nouns, -t is added to the uninflected form of the adjective_
  4. ett kallt bad - a cold bath
    ett grönt blad - a green leaf

  5. For the plural of both common and neuter nouns, -a is added to the uninflected form of the adjective:
  6. kalla vintrar - cold winters
    gröna blad - green leaves

The Indefinite Neuter Form of Adjectives

There are three important rules relating to the formatting of the indefinite neuter form of adjectives:

  1. Adjectives ending in -d preceded by a consonant drop the -d and add the normal -t ending in the neuter. Adjectives ending in -d preceded bya long vowel drop the -d and add -tt:
  2. en hård vinter - a hard winter
    ett hårt liv - a hard life
    en röd sko - a red shoe
    ett rött äpple - a red apple

  3. Adjectives ending in -t preceded by a consonant remain unchanged in the neuter. Monosyllabic adjectives ending in -t preceded by a long vowel form the neuter normally:
  4. en trött kvinna - a tired woman
    ett trött barn - a tried child
    en vit klänning - a white dress
    ett vitt hus - a white house

  5. Adjectives ending in unstressed -en drop the -n before the normal -t ending in the neuter:
  6. en förmögen man - a wealthy man
    ett förmöget hem - a wealthy house

  7. Adjectives ending in stressed vowel add -tt in the neuter:
  8. en ny soffa - a new sofa
    ett nytt hus - a new house

  9. Adjectives ending in -nn drop n whe the -t ending is added in the neuter:
  10. en tunn bok - a thin book
    ett tunt knäckebröd - a thin crispbread

The Definite Declension 

There is only one adjectival ending in the definitive declension: -a is added to the uninflected form of the adjective for both common and neuter nouns, singular and plural. In addition to this adjectival ending, however, a special definite article form must precede the adjective, while the modified noun retains its definite article suffix. The special definite article forms are: den, det and de.

den stora mannen - the big man
det stora barnet - the big child
de stora männen - the big men
de stora barnen - the big children

The Plural and the Definite Form of Adjectives

  1. Adjectives ending in unstressed -al, -el, -en or -er drop the -a- or -e- when -a is added to from the indefinite plural and the definite forms:
  2. en enkel regel - a simple rule
    enkla regler - simple rules

    den enkla regeln - the simple rule
    de enkla reglerna - the simple rules

  3. The adjective liten (small) is irregular:
  4. INDEFINITE
    en liten flicka - a small girl
    ett litet barn - a small child
    små flickor - small girls
    små barn - small children

    DEFINITE
    den lilla flickan - the small girl
    det lilla barnet - the small child
    de små flickorna - the small girls
    de små barnen - the small children

Indeclinable Adjectives

Adjectives that end in -a or -e are indeclinable, retaining the same form in both genders, singular and plural.

en bra bok - a good book
ett bra barn - a good child
bra böcker - good books
bra barn - good children

Some of the more important indeclinable adjectives are stilla (quiet), gyllene (golden), udda (odd, as in odd number) and äkta (genuine).

Use of Adjectives

Use of the indefinite Form of the Adjectives

The indefinite form of adjectives is used not only predicatively and after the indefinite articles en and ett, but also in the following constructions:

  1. After the indefinite adjectives mången, någon, ingen and varje:
  2. många kalla vintrar - many cold winters
    någon grön fågel - some green bird
    inga gröna blad - no green leaves
    varje vitt hus - every white house

  3. After vilken and sådan in exclamations:
  4. Vilken stor man!  - What a large man!
    En sådan kall vinter! - What a cold winter!

Use of the Definite Form of the Adjectives

The definite form of adjectives is used (without the definite article) in the following constructions:

  1. After a possessive adjective:
  2. min stora hund - my big dog
    mitt nya hus - my new house

  3. After a demonstrative adjective:
  4. denna stora hund  - this large dog
    detta nya hus - this new house
    dessa stora hundar - these large dogs

  5. When the adjective qualifies a proper noun:
  6. vänliga Maria  - kind Maria
    gamla Fredrik - old Fredrik

  7. In forms of direct address:
  8. Kära vän - Dear friend
    Besta Herr Nilsson - Dear Mr. Nilsson

  9. After a noun in the genitive case:
  10. Nilssons stora hund  -  Nilsson's large dog
    Fredriks nya hus - Fredrick's new house
    dessa stora hundar - these large dogs

Från: Essential Swedish Grammar

The Essential Swedish Grammar book is quite a compact grammar book. It covers many aspects of Swedish grammar briefly. Due to its small size, it can be used as a quick reference guide at all times. 

4 kommentarer:

Anonym sa...

här finns många grammatikfel!!!!!!

Lärdigsvenska sa...

Förhoppningsvis har vi rättat till alla fel nu. Det är märkligt att alla fel finns i den gamla boken vi brukade använda. Hoppas att allt är korrigerat men om det finns något mer får du gärna höra av dig.

Anonym sa...

min stora hund - my large god ???

Fouad Yahya sa...

enkla reglar ?
enkla regler ska det vara...

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